Pearsall was established on the International-Great Northern Railroad in 1880. The town is the seat of Frio County and is the primary retail center for a large area of diversified agriculture and livestock production. A giant peanut monument downtown salutes the area's primary crop (over 55 million pounds marketed annually). Cotton, grain sorghum and vegetables grow on 54,000 irrigated acres. Honey is available from local honey producers. Fishing is available in the Frio River and smaller streams. During seasons hunters take white-tailed deer, javelina, dove and quail.