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Robert Leftwich, a representative for the Texas Association of Nashville, Tennessee, obtained a colonization grant from Mexico in 1825 that included the Milam County
area. The grant's boundaries followed the Navasota River, turned southwest along the San Antonio road to the divide between the Brazos and the Colorado rivers, then northwest to the Comanche Trail, and east back to the Navasota.
It was during the first Congress of the Republic of Texas that the municipality came to be called Milam County
. At that time the boundaries of the county were roughly the same as those of the colony granted to Leftwich, comprising one-sixth of the land area of Texas.
By 1850, with the exception of a small area between Williamson and Bell counties, Milam County
had been reduced to its present size. The county is predominantly rural with two cities: the county seat, Cameron, and Rockdale.