Named for early herds of Hereford cattle, Hereford is the seat of Deaf Smith County. (Deaf Smith commanded Sam Houston's scouts at the Battle of San Jacinto.) Hereford was called the "town without a toothache" due to the low incidence of dental decay attributed to the natural fluorides in the municipal water supply.
Agribusiness supports the economy with immense production of grain sorghum, wheat, corn, grapes, and sugar beets. A local plant refines sugar from beets grown in the four-county area. Three million cattle annually move through area feedlots.